Vol. 10 | No. 5 | May 2015 Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ)
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THE EFFECTS OF MILITANT MEDIA IN THE PROMTION OF
TALIBANIZATION: A CASE Study OF MAULANA RADIO OF
SWAT, KPK, PAKISTAN
Sajjad Ali
Lecture in Media and Communication Studies
University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Cell: 092-(0)343-9105107, Email: sajjadjmc.uop@gmail .com
Dr. Muhammad Shahzad
Assistant Professor: Department of Media Studies
The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Cell: 092-(0)300-9680974, Email: rmshahzad88@hotmailc .om
Junaid Nazir
M. Phil Scholar: Department of Media Studies
The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Cell: 092-(0)300-8683550, Email: junaid.nazirnaz@gmail .com
Muhammad Tariq
M. Phil Scholar: Department of Media Studies
The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Cell: 092-(0)300-9413124, Email: xpertyz@gmail .com
Muhammad Saeed
M. Phil Scholar: Department of Media Studies
The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Cell: 092-(0)343-3146948, Email: msaeedafridi35@yahoo .com
ABSTRACT
This study has been conducted to find out the reasons behind the popularity of the Maulana
Radio as well as to dig out the factors for which the Taliban used the medium in Swat area.
The study also analyzed to find out the agenda of the broadcaster of the Maulana Radio as
well as the effects of the medium on residents of Swat.
For this study a questionnaire compressing twenty questions was distributed among 500
respondents in seven Tehsils (Sub-devisions) of Swat for which descriptive and inferential
statistics were used to find out objective results.
The study reveals that the reason behind the popularity and promotion of Taliban was the use
of native language, religious ideology and lack of alternative media. The study also exposes
that the residents of Swat had tuned the Maulana Radio for listening threats and harassment of
the broadcaster.
The study supports the theoretical framework of ‘ Magic Bullet Theory’ that due to
passiveness of the audience, who didn’t verify the status of broadcaster, the agenda behind the
spreading message and illegality of the Maulana Radio affected the residents of Swat.
Key words: Alternative Media, Magic Bullet theory, Militant Media, Maulana Radio, Native
language, religious ideology, , Threats and harassment.
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INTORDUCTION
This study has been designed to see the effects of Militant Media in Swat region. The Militant
Media has brought a violent revolution in the region and affected the daily lives of people.
The medium, used by the Taliban in the area, was radio that spread violence and panic in the
region of Swat and affected the entire Pakistan.
As media presents both sides of the issue and problems, it also performs the responsibility to
educate the audience to eradicate the dilemma. On the other hand, the Militant Media has
been used for propaganda amongst the target audience. Due to the propagation element in
contents of the Militant Media, it controls those people who have the ability to mould the
public opinion through an impressive language.
MILITANT MEDIA
Militant media is the new term and the function of the media is also diverse than the other
types of media. The militant media is control and operated by the insurgent in various part of
the universe. The said media is consists on the all four types of media. Its agenda and policy is
according to the manifesto and plan of militant media is change than the state and private
media outlets.
Wajahat Masood (2010), explained the term Militant Media that it is a militant tools or classic
propaganda tools of a group with an ideological mission, i.e. denial, deception, diversion and
variations of emphasis. The projection or suppression of a certain piece of information is of
primary significance. The placement and the use of a peculiar diction also carry subtle
messages, especially for a readership or audience that is already converted to a standpoint.
Indirect indoctrination can be very effective, especially when repeated in different contexts.
Militant radio is the new term as well as the function of the radio is various than the other
type of radio stations such as State bound radios and community radio stations. The device is
controlled and operated by the insurgents in various parts of the universe. The agenda and
policy of the radio is constructed by the militants according to their manifesto and plan. Most
of the radicals in the world, are using radio as medium for the diffusion of information,
because they one side living in the far flung areas while the other side at the area media is not
working properly. As well as the alternative is not available in the region. To take the
opportunity of unavailability of alternative source of information or not working properly the
terrorist install a radio to broadcast their agenda.
CHARMING SWAT
The District Swat is a peaceful and attractive valley in the lap of vegetative sky-high
mountains, with perpetual snow on their haughty peaks and everlasting source of attraction
for the tourists. Its beauty draws the attention of tourists from all over the world to enjoy the
relaxing and peaceful panoramas, and the gracious behaviors of its residents. Any tourist
comes to Pakistan would never return without visiting to Swat.
DEMOGRAPHY
According to the Census of 1998 the population of Swat is 1,257,602. The main language of
the area is Pakhto also called Pashto. The people of Swat are mainly Pakhtuns, Yusufzi,
Akhundkhel, Miangan or Sadatgan (Syed), Nooristani, Awans, Kohistan and Gujar. Northern
Swat, Kalam region is known as Kohistan. The people of the area speak the Tor”Waali” and
Kalami languages.
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GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF SWAT
Mugus, Mardan Benjamin & D. Hapkin (2012), said that the charming Swat valley is located
in the north of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, old name North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), 37°
North Latitude and 71° and 32° East Longitude, and in the centre of haughty crests of
mountains. Its area is about 4,000 sq miles while its height from the sea level is 2,500 ft to
7500 respectively.
District Dir is located in the west; Chitral and Gilgit are in the north and Mardan in the south,
while Indus splits it from Hazara in the east.
THE EMERGENCE OF TALIBAN IN SWAT
Sultan-e-Rome, (2009), says that Sufi Muhammad launched a movement named
TanzimNifaz-e-Sharia-e-Muhammadi (Movement for the enforcement of Islamic laws) in
1989. The manifesto of the movement was to convince the Pakistan government to enforce
the Islamic laws in judicial system in Malakand Division. The movement gradually spread to
Swat valley. Due to prolonged legal process, bribery, exploitation of Riwaj and fall under the
Federally Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) regulation had distressed the
people of Swat.
The head of TNSM Sufi Muhammad was continuing the efforts of the enforcement of the
Islamic Sharia to change the judicial system. In the meantime, the United State of America
invated Afghanistan in 2001, due to the attack of Pentagon and World Trade Centre by the Al
Qaeda fighters led by their chief Osama Bin Ladin.
Sufi Muhammad along with thousands of supporters crossed into Afghanistan to fight against
American troops and its coalition forces though the Taliban high command asked him not to
do so. After heavy casualties, he along with his son-in-law Fazlullah returned to Pakistan
where both were caught by the security forces of Pakistan in border area and sent them behind
the bars.
After 17 months Fazlullah was released while Sufi Muhammad remained in jail. He came to
his home town Swat and started campaign for the implementation of Islamic Sharia in
Malakand Division with full swing in the area.
In January 12, 2002, General Pervez Musharraf banned TNSM organization due to the
terrorist activities inside the country. Fazlullah restored the organization in October 8, 2005 in
Swat valley as chief commander in government of Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA).
COMMENCEMENT OF RADIO MAULANA RADIO
Maulana Fazlullah started an illegal local FM Radio station in Swat valley in 2004, which
gained extraordinary popularity in 2006-07. His demagogue speeches had an anti-western
stance of Jihad. Fazlullah was pro-Taliban and a very authoritative figure in the area. Though
he used most sophisticated communication based electronics as “sources of sin”, he
transmitted the broadcast of his sermons on his illegal radio channel, nicknamed as “Radio
Mullah”, “Mullah Radio” or “Maulana Radio”.
Maulana Fazlullah, Maulana Shah Dauran and Maulana Muhammad Alam were the operator
of the medium mostly. They used to change each other due to the situation in the area. In their
messages they used to warn the people not to keep television, compact discs (CDs),
computers and other equipment in the area even in their houses as these were the major
sources of sin.
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Fazlullah was anti-polio immunization in the country, claiming that it is the conspiracy of the
non-Muslims against the Muslims. He ordered the people that it is against the Islamic rules
and laws.
He also banned the female education in the area, claiming that female could get Islamic
education instead of British and American type of education due to the Islamic customs and
laws. As well as he opposed the women’s voting system in the country.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Literature Review helped me in my research of “The Effects of Militant-Media in the
promotion of Talibanization: A case study of ‘Maulana Radio’ of Swat” to evaluate the radio
role in the image building, changing behavior and attitude of the public.
Khalid Aziz (2010) explores in his research article titled “Criminalizing the female in Swat”,
that due to the Maulana Radio the Pakhtun identity of the women was replaced by a more
stringent anti feminine identity that led to keeping the female house bound and uneducated.
This created a center of conservatism at the household level that became the source of
assistance for the Swat Taliban. Such a mechanism later ensured the recruitment of husbands
and sons to the ranks of the militants due to the influence of these women. Thus innocently
the female became an accessory to a criminal organization in Swat through her support and
abetment.
Wajahat Masood (2010) explains the term militant media as a type of media which is won and
controlled by the insurgent in the world. He says that it would be called radical media also. He
further says that it is a tool of propaganda of group with ideological plan to mould the opinion
of the target audience.
Hassan Abbas (2010) is of the view that Maulana Fazlullah propagated his claims and
demands by the use of FM radio which is also known as Mullah Radio or Maulana Radio in
the history of Swat. He added that FM radio boosted the familiarity of the Taliban in the area
and captured the audience in a few months. He further suggests that radio was tool which the
Taliban used for their projection in Swat valley. According to him it was broadcast social
information instructions to the residents of the valley but in the end of the 2006 it started to
give strict orders to the community not to violate any rule of Islam in Swat.
Mukhtar Ali Khan (2009) explores the detail of the illegal and propaganda radios which were
operated by Taliban from different parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (previously known as North
West Frontier Provence: NWFP). According to him due the use of radio Taliban gain the
popularity in the area. He further says that on the base of radio, Taliban took hold on the area
and threat the people to resign the government jobs, stop supporting military and the
government, otherwise they must be face harsh consequences in the shape of Jihad. He further
adds that Taliban harassed the women and stopped them to send their girls to school because
it is unislamic. They were against the idea of immunization of children because in their view
it is a western propaganda against the Muslims. In their view, on the base of radio the
announcers also demanded that non-Muslims to pay Jizya (protection tax) or face Jihad.
He says that for the first time the illegal FM radio was started in Khyber Agency owned by
Haji Namdar, the leader of “Tanzim Amr Bil Maroof Wa Nhi Anil Munkar” (Suppression of
Vice and the Promotion of Virtue) in 2003.Haji Namdar appointed Mufti Shakair a Deobandi
Suni firebrand. He started preaching against the Barelvi Sufi group in the area. The rival
group headed by Pir Saifurahman also started FM radio as a reaction and they started accusing
each other. The opposing views of both radio station operators resulted in a violent clash in
the Bara of Khyber Agency of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. After the clash in the area the local
people demanded the government to expelled both of the leaders from the area and ban their
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radio stations. The government agreed and expelled both of them but afterwards other small
FM radio stations started in the area, in which one of them is Mangal Bagh, who started FM
radio in the area.
He re-organized the Mufti Shakir group “Lashkar-e-Islam” in the area and started issuing
Fatwas (Religious decrees) through FM radio in the area. After gaining trust and popularity in
the area Mangal Bagh developed parallel administration and challenged the writ of the
government.
Mukhtar Ali Khan further says that in the same way Mualana Fazlullah also started FM radio
station in the valley of Swat. The radio was extremely popular among the women of Swat,
who donated jewelry and cash to Maulana Fazlullah when he demanded to build a Madrassa
in Imam Dheri, his home town. Due to the use of FM radio Maulana Fazlullah gained
international attention and earned a nickname “Mualana Radio”, “Mullah Radio” and FM
Mullah” for his radio station.
The local people of Swat looked to him for guidance and for conflict resolution. If someone
missed a broadcast, they often felt the need to ask others what the FM Mullah had said that
particular day. Who is to be flogged or beheaded next? Who was forgiven and who was
punished today?
He further said that Darra Adam Khel Taliban Commander Tariq Afridi has also started
illegal FM radio in the area. He threatens the tribesmen not to raise Lashkar (Volunteer
Malitia) against the Taliban or in support of Military against them. He says that besides of
these FM radio station in the tribal area, many other illegal radio stations also started in
different settled parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa such as Charsada, Mardan and Swabi. He said
the according to Pakistan Electronic Media Regularity Authority (PEMRA) almost 300 illegal
FM radio stations are working in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and these all were propaganda radios.
Qandeel Siddique (2010) explores that Maulana Fazlullah mould the opinion of the residents
of the Swat valley through the use of FM radio also Know is “Maulana Radio or FM Mullah”.
He says that the heavy use of radio Fazlullah gained the trust of the residents and spread his
propaganda among the people. After taking hold, he started threats and harassment in the area.
He says that the use of FM radio and support of the women stable Fazlullah in the area.
Mujtaba Rathore and Abdul Basit (2010) mentions in their article titled “Trends and Patterns
of Radicalization in Pakistan”, that Mualan Fazlullah took hold on the residents of Swat
valley and Mangal Bagh on the people of Khyber Agency by the use of FM radio. They
further says that due to the threaten speeches the residents of the area were avoid to listen
music and destroyed or change their music shops into other business.
According to them, radio is an effective source of information all over the world but it is more
effective in these areas where there is a lack of alternative media. They added that the
unavailability of media increasing the popularity of non-state actors.
OBJECTIVES
1. To determine the role of the native language.
2. To search out the effect of unavailability of alternative media
3. To search out that whether the audience of Maulana Radio listened it for Islamic
preaching or for threats and harassment.
4. To measure that the audience either listened it due the fear of Taliban or ideology
related to them.
HYPOTHESIS
I. The residents of Swat had preferred the Maulana radio due to the use native language.
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II. The residents of Swat tuned to the Maulana radio because the ideology transmuted
through Maulana radio was related to the respondents’ ideology.
III. The residents of Swat tuned to the Maulana radio for the purpose of listening the
threats and harassment.
IV. Due to the lack of an alternative media respondents used to listen Maulana radio on
specific time of the day.
RESEARCH DESIGN
To find out the results of the objectives and possible answers to the hypotheses of the
problem, the researcher used the survey technique to evaluate the opinion of the target
audience. The research was limited to specific area of Swat comprise seven Tehsils, i.e. Swat,
Kabal , Matta, Barikot, Bahrain, Khwazakhela and Charbagh.
Quota sampling was used for the universe of the study; data was collected from 500
respondents in different Tehsils of Swat, in which 250, respondents were male, while 250
respondents were female of the whole population. To avoid complication, the researcher
divided the sample according the proportion of the population and literacy rate in the area.
A questionnaire was used as data collection tool for the study comprises 20 close ended
questions about the subject, contents, duration, changing behaviour and purpose of listening
the Maulana Radio.
To ensure objectivity in the results of this study, balance and accurate findings the researcher
used SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-19) for quantitative data analysis.
Microsoft word and Microsoft Excel were used for designing tables, graphs, charts and
composing the thesis script.
APPLICABEL THEORY
There are various communication theories related to the topic which helped the researcher to
evaluate, investigate and explore this topic in different contexts and approaches, the
researcher selected “Magic Bullet Theory for this research.
The researcher of the “Magic Bullet Theory” frames that the mass media has uniformed
effects on the ideas, thoughts and action of the Audience. Due to the said assumption media
fired and inject the message into the mind of the audience and mould the public opinion
towards a particular view and action.
About the nature, tune, assumption and main idea of the Bullet theory Nayyar Shamsi (2005),
said that the theory reflect the fear and dread of mass media being used for massive
propaganda. As the theory suggested, the message were thought to be like magic bullet that
were shot directly into the receiver.
Brian L. Ott & Robert L. Mack (2010), said that the ‘Bullet theory’ point out that the mass
media had a uniform, instantaneous and potential effect on its audiences that to mould their
opinion towards a particular direction.
According to the theory the audience is passive and powerless which shot their mind directly,
while the active audience is not affected the media. It also means that media enormously
potential organization and the users are setting duck who accepted everything which are
telecast, broadcast and print on the media.
According to the theory the passive audience is those who not verified the information such as
affected by the propaganda of World War I and the 1938 panic broadcasting in America. In
which the announcer broadcast a scientific fiction that aliens are going to attack on the earth.
About one million people of the audience were run away from their living places to safe place
to save themselves from the attack.
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Active audience are those audience who are confirm the information which disseminated by
the Mass media among the peoples. As well as Active audience are not only watch, listen and
read different mediums for receiving the information but also to think about the matters of the
projection of the media.
The effect of Maulana Radio was somehow the same. Because the Maulana radio was
affected the audience of the Swat region due to the passiveness. They did not verify the status
of the operator as well as the information of the medium, while they have not analyzed the
propaganda contents of the medium.
Results and Findings
Table.1: Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
Sr.# Demographic
Characteristics
Description of
Characteristics
F %
1. Gender Male 250 50
Female 250 50
500 100
2. Age
(years)
15-25 145 29
26-35 156 31.2
36-45 137 17.4
46-55 42 8.4
56-65 20 4.0
Total 500 100
3. Education Illiterate 292 58.4
Middle 89 17.8
Metric 58 11.6
Intermediate 31 6.2
Bachelor Degree 13 2.6
Master Degree 10 2.0
Higher Degree 7 1
Total 500 100
4. Marital Status Married 330 66
Single 170 34
Total 500 100
A total of 500 respondents from the seven tehsils of Swat filled the questionnaire, 250 of them
were Males and 250 were Females. As shown in Table 6.1, majority of the respondents were
between 26 to 35 years old (31 percent) followed by 15 to 25 years old (29 percent)
respectively of the total population.
Table 1 shows that the majority of the respondents’ were illiterate (58.4 percent) and
maximum of the married respondents (66 percent) were house managers and stay at homes, as
well as who directly or indirectly involved in domestic works.
The researcher has classified the respondents into two groups married and unmarried, to dig
out the percentage that who is more exposed to the media in Swat. So according to the table
married people are more exposed than unmarried. The table shows that among the
respondents 330 were married and 170 were unmarried population answered the
questionnaire. To study the effect of Maulana Radio on the ideological status is important,
because the people of this age group are considered middle-aged and comparatively
independent.
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Fig 1: Distribution of respondents according to the cause of listening
Figure 1 illustrates the distribution of respondents of Maulana radio in Swat. 184 (37 percent)
of the respondents answered that they listened it due to unavailability of alternative media,
164 (33 percent) replied due to load shedding, 77 (15 percent) react due to leisure time,
whereas 75 (15 percent) responded other in which they mentioned that they listened to the
Maulana radio because it was a common trend in the area.
Fig 2: Distribution of the respondents according to the Language of Maulana radio
Figure 2 shows the answer of the query asked about the local language due which they were
tuned the radio. 397 (80 percent) respondents replied “Yes” option whereas103 (20 percent)
answered “NO”. The statistics show that the Maulana radio was tuned on due to the native
language.
Fig 3: purpose of Listening of Maulana Radio.
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The study also evaluated the respondents’ purpose of listening of Maulana Radio.
Respondents answered different aims of listening. Their reactions in Figure 3 indicated that
most frequently 179 (36 percent) mentioned the aim of listening was for the threats and
harassment, 139 (28 percent) for Islamic Sharia, 81 (16 percent) aim was to know the ideas of
the announcer, 79 (16 percent) mentioned that listened the radio to enhance the Islamic
learning whereas 22 (4 percent) replied that it was a common trend so that why they also
tuned on the radio. The statistics illustrated that most of the people of the area listened the
Maulana radio mostly for the threats and harassments.
Fig 4: Ideology promoted by Maulana Radio
The study also analyzed that to know about the ideology of the Maulana radio in the area.
The figure 4 elaborated the promotion of ideology of the Maulana radio that 119 (24 percent)
respondents answered that it was to promote the ideology to bring Islamic government in the
area. 154 (31 percent) replied it was on-aired to support Taliban while 173 (34 percent)
reacted that the transmission was used to spread militancy in the area. Whereas 40 (8 percent)
agreed that to bring justice in the area and 14 (3percent) of the view that it was only on-aired
for Islamic preaching. The statistics indicates that the Maulana radio had promoted the
ideology of spreading militancy in the area to support the Taliban in Swat.
HYPOTHESES RESULTS
Table 2: Chi-square Test for Association: Listening Maulana radio and Native language
Variables Chi-square D.F p-value Conclusion
Pearson chi-square 22.662 3 .000 Significance
Total Respondents 500 – – –
H-1: “The residents of Swat preferred the Maulana Radio due to the use of native
language”
The data interpreted by Chi-square formed statistically significant association between the
listening of Maulana radio and native language. It is concluded that local language is more
effective for the promotion of ideology as such used by Taliban on Maulana radio.
Finding exposed that majority of audience (80 percent) claimed that due to native language
they had tuned the Maulana radio in the era of Taliban in Swat.
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Table 3: Chi-square Test for Association: Listening of Maulana radio and Ideology
Variables Chi-square D.F p-value Conclusion
Pearson chisquare
161.855 12 .000 Significant
Total
Respondents
500 – – –
H-2: “The residents of Swat tuned the Maulana radio because ideology transmitted
through Maulana radio was related to the respondents’ ideology”
The hypothesis statically sputtered by Chi-square value. The Chi-square value shows a
significant association between the listening of Maulana radio and ideology promoted by the
Maulana radio in the area.
It is inveterate that Maulana radio was listened by the residents of Swat for the ideology
which was broadcasted by the Maulana three times a day. It was also revealed that Maulana
was spreading militancy in the area in the form of religious personal interpretation of Islam.
Table 4: Chi-square Test for Association: Listening Maulana radio and purpose of listening of threats
and harassments
Variables Chi-square D.F p-value Conclusion
Pearson chisquare
103.790 12 .000 Significant
Total
Respondents
500 – – –
H-3: “The residents of Swat tuned to the Maulana radio for the purpose of listening of
threats and harassment”.
The Chi-square value proved a significant association between the listening of Maulana radio
with threats and harassment of the presenter. The association discovered that the residents of
Swat tuned to the Maulana radio because to listen the threats and harassment of the presenter.
It is also proved that the radio was tuned due to the fear of Taliban in the area. Because the
Chi-square result shows that they listened the radio for threats and harassment. The presenter
was announcing threats to those persons who were working for the government because the
Taliban declared the government non-Islamic. As well as harassment statements were
broadcasted for a family leader to not send their girls to government schools and not to
ammonize the children for the polio. Because the presenter explained the Islamic sharia in his
personal interpretation who’s claimed was that the girls’ education is not allowed in Islam but
only Islamic. About the ammonization they argued that it is a Jewish game to decrease the
population of Islamic Umma.
Table 5: Chi-square Test for Association: specific time of listening of Maulana radio respondents due
to lack of alternative media
Variables Chi-square D.F p-value Conclusion
Pearson chisquare
248.209 9 .000 Significant
Total
Respondents
500 – – –
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H-4: “Due to the lack of an alternative media respondents used to listen Maulana radio
on Specific time of the day”.
Statistically the hypothesis was proved by Chi-square technique. The Chi square values
indicate a significant association between lack of alternative and listening of Maulana radio.
The result shows that unavailability of other media boost importance of a single medium in
the area. As well as confirmed that other type media is more important in those areas where
the government writ is challenged. Because when a number of media sources installed in the
area decrease the familiarity of a single type of media.
THEORITICAL JUTIFICATION
This study strengthen the concept of Lasswell “Passive audience” in “Magic Bullet theory”,
which suggests that the media users play an passive role in choosing and using the media
when the media contents and agenda are related to religious, cultural and psychological
sentiment. The study also supported that audience do not confirm the information, ideology
and agenda as they are passive because active audience using media for need and satisfaction.
The passive audience is also use the media for the gratification but do not verified the facts
and figures behind the agenda as promoted by the Maulana radio.
The results confirmed that the audiences of Maulana radio were passive audience who didn’t
verify the agenda of the announcer. So for that most of the people preferred to the
transmission and believed in the claims and argument of the presenters of Maulana radio.
CONCLUSION
The finding and results proved that Maulana radio affected the resident of Swat due to
unavailability of alternative media, threats and harassment, ideology and the use of native
language for broadcasting. The study also justifies the objectives and hypothesis of the study
that the contents of the radio were consists of Islamic teachings but the residents of the Swat
preferred to listen the radio for threats and harassment.
In the light of the present study it is concluded that radio is the most effective source of
information. It is also concluded that radio is an easily accessible medium for both, the
operator and user. It is has vital role in spreading any propaganda.
It is brought into the limelight that religion is used as a tool, to get the desired objectives. It is
also concluded that native language and lack of alternative media are more effective sources
for the spreading of the non-actors ideology.
RECOMMENDATIONS
It is recommended to the government and Development Support Communication (DSC)
experts to use local language for social and ideological change in the target people. It is also
recommended to the government to install or extend the coverage of other mass media in the
remote areas of the country particularly in those areas where there is a lack of alternative
media.
It is suggested to the law enforcement agencies to keep check in balance on the contents of
Mass media of the country which disseminated controversial as well as threats and harassment
statements in the country, to save the country from any foreign propaganda.
The researcher suggests to the religious figures to explain the difference between a Mullah
and religious scholar. To educate a common man to follow the true religious figure of religion
for teaching of Islamic Sharia.
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It is also recommended to the government to collect the data of all Imams of the Masjids of
the country to identify their nationality. And also verify their academic qualification to know
the ability of these religious figures.
It is also suggested to the government to direct the District Coordination Officers (DCOs) of
the country to send a single topic to all of the Imams of the Masjids for Friday and Eid
sermons.
In the light of the study the researcher recommend to the government to use radio for the
awareness and education of the people because the people of Swat rated the medium as highly
effective source of information in the country.
It is suggested to government media authorities particularly to PEMRA to make the policy of
license more restrict in remote area where the illegal media might be installed by non-state
actor in the country.
It is also recommended to the government and media practitioners to improve their
communication sources in the insurgent area of the country to control the situation on time.
AKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am thankful to Dr. Muhammad Shahzad, , Junaid Nazir, Muhammad Tariq and Muhammad
Saeed for their candid form of support; encouragement; guidance and ability to facilitate a
fruitful research process. This research article is based on the M.Phil/MS work which didn’t
financially support by anyone.
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